What are Exosomes?
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released from cells, specifically from mesenchymal stem cells derived from the donated umbilical cords of healthy mothers. They act as shuttles for certain genetic information and proteins to other cells and allow for cell-to-cell communication, transporting molecules that are important regulators of intracellular information between close and distant cells. They carry information from place to place with different functions and purposes, telling cells how and when to react.
Isolating the therapeutic signals released by regenerative cells, and using them rather than the cells themselves are the next generation as a therapy. The targeted cells will react to these messaging signals and will change their behavior accordingly. There is a tremendous therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles and nano-particles.
Exosomes are being heralded as the next frontier of cell therapy. While not being cells at all, they play a vital role in the communication and rejuvenation of all the cells in our body. Science has shown that the cell-to-cell communication is important in maintaining a healthy cellular terrain.
What are the components of Exosomes?
- Cytokines: Cytokines are small proteins important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides or small proteins that are crucial in controlling the growth and activity of other immune system cells and blood cells & help the body’s immune and inflammation responses.
- Growth Factors: Naturally occurring substances capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Growth factors are any of a group of proteins that stimulate the growth of specific tissues.
- Extracellular Vesicles: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of the membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNA. They carry a cargo of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, metabolites, and even organelles from the parent cell.
- Hyaluronic Acid (HA): Hyaluronic acid is a lubricating, clear substance that’s produced by the body naturally. In the human body, hyaluronic acid is found in the greatest concentrations in the skin, inside joints, within the eye sockets , and in other tissues where it helps retain collagen, increase moisture, and provide elasticity and flexibility.
Stem cells are fundamentally the building blocks of life and have the potential to differentiate into many different types of cells within the body. They are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to self-replicate into specific cell types in the body. These cells can be injected directly into an area of injury to begin repair of the injury by releasing growth factors and immune modulators that assist in the body’s natural repair process. Stem cells are actively involved in repairing, regenerating, and rebuilding damaged or absent tissue in the body that has been affected by disease, infection, or injury.